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back2root:archives:denthor:part-04

PART 04 : Virtual Screen

Howdy all! Welcome to the fourth part of this trainer series! It's a little late, but I am sure you will find that the wait was worth it, becase today I am going to show you how to use a very powerful tool : Virtual Screens.

If you would like to contact me, or the team, there are many ways you can do it : 
            1) Write a message to Grant Smith in private mail here on the Mailbox BBS.
            2) Write a message here in the Programming conference here on the Mailbox (Preferred if you have a general programming query or problem others would benefit from)
            3) Write to ASPHYXIA on the ASPHYXIA BBS.
            4) Write to Denthor, Eze or Livewire on Connectix.
            5) Write to :  Grant Smith
                           P.O.Box 270 Kloof
                           3640
            6) Call me (Grant Smith) at 73 2129 (leave a message if you
                  call during varsity)

NB : If you are a representative of a company or BBS, and want ASPHYXIA to do you a demo, leave mail to me; we can discuss it.

NNB : If you have done/attempted a demo, SEND IT TO ME! We are feeling quite lonely and want to meet/help out/exchange code with other demo groups. What do you have to lose? Leave a message here and we can work out how to transfer it. We really want to hear from you!

What is a Virtual Screen and why do we need it?

Let us say you are generating a complex screen numerous times on the fly (for example scrolling up the screen then redrawing all the sprites for each frame of a game you are writing.) Do you have any idea how awful it would look if the user could actually see you erasing and redrawing each sprite for each frame? Can you visualise the flicker effect this would give off? Do you realise that there would be a “sprite doubling” effect (where you see two copies of the same sprite next to each other)? In the sample program I have included a part where I do not use virtual screens to demonstrate these problems. Virtual screens are not the only way to solve these problems, but they are definately the easiest to code in.

A virtual screen is this : a section of memory set aside that is exactly like the VGA screen on which you do all your working, then “flip” it on to your true screen. In EGA 640x350x16 you automatically have a virtual page, and it is possible to have up to four on the MCGA using a particular tweaked mode, but for our puposes we will set one up using base memory.

Setting up a virtual screen

As you will have seen in the first part of this trainer series, the MCGA screen is 64000 bytes big (320×200=64000). You may also have noticed that in TP 6.0 you arn't allowed too much space for normal variables. For example, saying :

VAR Virtual : Array [1..64000] of byte;

would be a no-no, as you wouldn't have any space for your other variables.

What is the solution? I hear you enquiring minds cry. The answer : pointers!

Pointers to not use up the base 64k allocated to you by TP 6.0, it gets space from somewhere else in the base 640k memory of your computer. Here is how you set them up :

Type Virtual = Array [1..64000] of byte;  { The size of our Virtual Screen }
     VirtPtr = ^Virtual;                  { Pointer to the virtual screen }
 
VAR Virscr : VirtPtr;                      { Our first Virtual screen }
    Vaddr  : word;                        { The segment of our virtual screen}

If you put this in a program as it stands, and try to acess VirScr, your machine will probably crash. Why? Because you have to get the memory for your pointers before you can acess them! You do that as follows :

Procedure SetUpVirtual;
BEGIN
  GetMem (VirScr,64000);
  vaddr := seg (virscr^);
END;

This procedure has got the memory for the screen, then set vaddr to the screens segment. DON'T EVER LEAVE THIS PROCEDURE OUT OF YOUR PROGRAM!

If you leave it out, when you write to your virtual screen you will probably be writing over DOS or some such thing. Not a good plan ;-).

When you have finished your program, you will want to free the memory taken up by the virtual screen by doing the following :

Procedure ShutDown;
BEGIN
  FreeMem (VirScr,64000);
END;

If you don't do this your other programs will have less memory to use for themselves.

Putting a pixel to your virtual screen

This is very similar to putting a pixel to your normal MCGA screen, as discussed in part one… here is our origonal putpixel :

Procedure PutPixel (X,Y : Integer; Col : Byte);
BEGIN
  Mem [VGA:X+(Y*320)]:=col;
END;

For our virtual screen, we do the following :

Procedure VirtPutPixel (X,Y : Integer; Col : Byte);
BEGIN
  Mem [Vaddr:X+(Y*320)]:=col;
END;

It seems quite wasteful to have two procedures doing exactly the same thing, just to different screens, doesn't it? So why don't we combine the two like this :

Procedure PutPixel (X,Y : Integer; Col : Byte; Where : Word);
BEGIN
  Mem [Where:X+(Y*320)]:=col;
END;

To use this, you will say something like :

Putpixel (20,20,32,VGA);
PutPixel (30,30,64,Vaddr);

These two statements draw two pixels … one to the VGA screen and one to the virtual screen! Doesn't that make you jump with joy! ;-) You will have noticed that we still can't actually SEE the virtual screen, so on to the next part …

How to "Flip" your virtual screen on to the true screen

You in fact already have to tools to do this yourselves from information in the previous parts of this trainer series. We will of course use the Move command, like so :

Move (Virscr^,mem [VGA:0],64000);

simple, eh? Yuo may want to wait for a verticle retrace (Part 2) before you do that, as it may make the flip much smoother (and, alas, slower).

Note that most of our other procedures may be altered to support the virtual screen, such as Cls etc. (see Part 1 of this series), using the methoods described above (I have altered the CLS procedure in the sample program given at the end of this Part.)

We of ASPHYXIA have used virtual screens in almost all of our demos.

Can you imagine how awful the SoftelDemo would have looked if you had to watch us redrawing the moving background, text and vectorballs for EACH FRAME? The flicker, doubling effects etc would have made it awful! So we used a virtual screen, and are very pleased with the result.

Note, though, that to get the speed we needed to get the demo fast enough, we wrote our sprites routines, flip routines, pallette routines etc. all in assembly. The move command is very fast, but not as fast as ASM ;-)

In closing

I am writing this on the varsity computers in between lectures. I prefer writing & coding between 6pm and 4am, but it isn't a good plan when varsity is on ;-), so this is the first part of the trainer series ever written before 9pm.

I have been asked to do a part on scrolling the screen, so that is probably what I will do for next week. Also, ASPHYXIA will soon be putting up a small demo with source on the local boards. It will use routines that we have discussed in this series, and demonstrate how powerful these routines can be if used in the correct manner.

Some projects for you to do :

  1) Rewrite the flip statement so that you can say :
        flip (Vaddr,VGA);
        flip (VGA,Vaddr);
      ( This is how ASPHYXIAS one works )

  2) Put most of the routines (putpixel, cls, pal etc.) into a unit, so that you do not need to duplicate the procedures in each program you write. If you need help, leave me mail.

See you next week

Denthor

Code Source

PASCAL

{$X+}   (* This is a handy little trick to know. If you put this at the top
           of your program, you do not have to set a variable when calling
           a function, i.e. you may just say 'READKEY' instead of
           'CH:=READKEY'                                                *)
 
USES Crt;           (* This has a few nice functions in it, such as the
                       READKEY command.                                 *)
 
CONST VGA = $a000;  (* This sets the constant VGA to the segment of the
                       VGA screen.                                      *)
 
Type Virtual = Array [1..64000] of byte;  { The size of our Virtual Screen }
     VirtPtr = ^Virtual;                  { Pointer to the virtual screen }
 
VAR Virscr : VirtPtr;                      { Our first Virtual screen }
    Vaddr  : word;                        { The segment of our virtual screen}
 
 
{ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ}
Procedure SetMCGA;  { This procedure gets you into 320x200x256 mode. }
BEGIN
  asm
     mov        ax,0013h
     int        10h
  end;
END;
 
 
{ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ}
Procedure SetText;  { This procedure returns you to text mode.  }
BEGIN
  asm
     mov        ax,0003h
     int        10h
  end;
END;
 
 
{ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ}
Procedure Cls (Col : Byte; Where:Word);
   { This clears the screen to the specified color, on the VGA or on the
        virtual screen }
BEGIN
  Fillchar (Mem [where:0],64000,col);
END;
 
{ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ}
procedure WaitRetrace; assembler;
  { This waits until you are in a Verticle Retrace ... this means that all
    screen manipulation you do only appears on screen in the next verticle
    retrace ... this removes most of the "fuzz" that you see on the screen
    when changing the pallette. It unfortunately slows down your program
    by "synching" your program with your monitor card ... it does mean
    that the program will run at almost the same speed on different
    speeds of computers which have similar monitors. In our SilkyDemo,
    we used a WaitRetrace, and it therefore runs at the same (fairly
    fast) speed when Turbo is on or off. }
 
label
  l1, l2;
asm
    mov dx,3DAh
l1:
    in al,dx
    and al,08h
    jnz l1
l2:
    in al,dx
    and al,08h
    jz  l2
end;
 
 
 
 
{ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ}
Procedure SetUpVirtual;
   { This sets up the memory needed for the virtual screen }
BEGIN
  GetMem (VirScr,64000);
  vaddr := seg (virscr^);
END;
 
 
{ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ}
Procedure ShutDown;
   { This frees the memory used by the virtual screen }
BEGIN
  FreeMem (VirScr,64000);
END;
 
 
{ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ}
Procedure PutPixel (X,Y : Integer; Col : Byte; Where : Word);
   { This puts a pixel at X,Y using color col, on VGA or the Virtual Screen}
BEGIN
  Mem [Where:X+(Y*320)]:=col;
END;
 
 
{ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ}
Procedure Flip;
   { This flips the virtual screen to the VGA screen. }
BEGIN
  Move (Virscr^,mem [VGA:0],64000);
END;
 
{ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ}
Procedure BlockMove;
   { This tests various ways of moving a block around the screen }
VAR loop1,loop2,loop3:Integer;
BEGIN
  For loop1:=1 to 50 do BEGIN                     { This draw a block    }
    for loop2:=1 to 50 do                         {  directly to VGA, no }
      for loop3:=1 to 50 do                       {  flipping            }
        putpixel (loop1+loop2,loop3,32,VGA);
    cls (0,VGA);
  END;
 
  For loop1:=1 to 50 do BEGIN                     { This draws a block     }
    for loop2:=1 to 50 do                         { to the virtual screen, }
      for loop3:=1 to 50 do                       { then flips it to VGA   }
        putpixel (loop1+loop2,loop3,32,Vaddr);
    flip;
    cls (0,Vaddr);
  END;
 
  For loop1:=1 to 50 do BEGIN                     { This draws a block     }
    for loop2:=1 to 50 do                         { to the virtual screen, }
      for loop3:=1 to 50 do                       { waits for a retrace,   }
        putpixel (loop1+loop2,loop3,32,Vaddr);    { then flips it to VGA   }
    waitretrace;
    flip;
    cls (0,Vaddr);
  END;
END;
 
 
{ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ}
Procedure PatternDraw;
   { This test the speed of flipping by drawing two patterns and flipping
     them }
VAR loop1,loop2:integer;
BEGIN
  for loop1:=1 to 100 do                        { This draws pattern one }
    for loop2:=1 to 100 do                      { to the virtual screen  }
      putpixel (loop1,loop2,loop1,Vaddr);       { then flips it to VGA   }
  flip;
 
  for loop1:=1 to 100 do                        { This draws pattern two }
    for loop2:=1 to 100 do                      { to the virtual screen  }
      putpixel (loop1,loop2,loop2,Vaddr);       { then flips it to VGA   }
  flip;
END;
 
 
BEGIN
  ClrScr;
  Writeln ('This program will demonstrate the power of virtual screens.');
  Writeln ('A block will firstly move across the screen, being drawn and');
  Writeln ('erased totally on the VGA. Then the same block will move');
  Writeln ('across, but will be drawn on the virtual screen and flipped');
  Writeln ('to the VGA screen without a retrace (see part 2). The the');
  Writeln ('block will go again, with flipping and a retrace.');
  Writeln;
  Writeln ('I will then draw a pattern, flip it to VGA, draw another');
  Writeln ('pattern, flip it to VGA, and repeat that until a key is pressed.');
  Writeln ('This will demonstrate that even when I put down 10000 pixels,');
  Writeln ('then flip them to the VGA, it is still relatively fast.      ');
  Writeln; Writeln;
  Writeln ('Hit any key to continue ...');
  readkey;
  setmcga;
  setupvirtual;
  cls (0,vaddr);    { After you have got the memory for the virtual screen,
                      it is usually filled with random garbage. It is always
                      wise to clear the virtual screen directly afterwards }
  BlockMove;
 
  Repeat
    PatternDraw;
  Until keypressed;
 
  Readkey;
  settext;
  shutdown;
  Writeln ('All done. This concludes the fourth sample program in the ASPHYXIA');
  Writeln ('Training series. You may reach DENTHOR under the name of GRANT');
  Writeln ('SMITH on the MailBox BBS, or leave a message to ASPHYXIA on the');
  Writeln ('ASPHYXIA BBS. Get the numbers from Roblist, or write to :');
  Writeln ('             Grant Smith');
  Writeln ('             P.O. Box 270');
  Writeln ('             Kloof');
  Writeln ('             3640');
  Writeln ('I hope to hear from you soon!');
  Writeln; Writeln;
  Write   ('Hit any key to exit ...');
  Readkey;
END.

C

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//                                                                         //
// TUTPROG4.CPP - VGA Trainer Program 4 (in Turbo C++ 3.0)                 //
//                                                                         //
// "The VGA Trainer Program" is written by Denthor of Asphyxia. However it //
// was limited to Pascal only in its first run.  All I have done is taken  //
// his original release, translated it to C++ and touched up a few things. //
// I take absolutely no credit for the concepts presented in this code and //
// am NOT the person to ask for help if you are having trouble.            //
//                                                                         //
// Program Notes : This program implements virtual screens, a great way    //
//                 to update your screen.                                  //
//                                                                         //
//                 For this particular program, I have found the compiler  //
//                 option -mc (Compact memory model) to work better than   //
//                 -ml (Large memory model).  However, you must use -mc or //
//                 greater.                                                //
//                 Also, you might want to go under "Options...Debugger"   //
//                 and increase your programs Heap size to >64k.  I don't  //
//                 know if <64k will lock your system, but I had problems. //
//                                                                         //
// Author        : Grant Smith (Denthor) - denthor@beastie.cs.und.ac.za    //
// Translator    : Christopher G. Mann   - r3cgm@dax.cc.uakron.edu         //
//                                                                         //
// Last Modified : December 23, 1994                                       //
//                                                                         //
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
 
//               //
// INCLUDE FILES //
//               //
 
  #include <conio.h>
			   // clrscr(), getch(), kbhit()
  #include <dos.h>
			   // MK_FP, geninterrupt()
  #include <iostream.h>
			   // _fmemset(), cout, memset(), _fmemcpy()
  #include <stdlib.h>
			   // calloc(), exit(), free()
 
//                     //
// FUNCTION PROTOTYPES //
//                     //
 
  // MODE SETTING FUNCTIONS
  void SetMCGA();
  void SetText();
 
  // VIRTUAL SCREEN FUNCTIONS
  void SetUpVirtual();
  void ShutDown();
  void Flip();
 
  // UTILITY FUNCTIONS
  void Cls(unsigned char Col, unsigned char *Where);
  void Putpixel (int x, int y, unsigned char Col, unsigned int Where);
  void WaitRetrace();
 
  // MID-LEVEL FUNCTIONS
  void BlockMove();
  void PatternDraw();
 
//                              //
// GLOBAL VARIABLE DECLARATIONS //
//                              //
 
  // declare a pointer to the offset of the Virtual Screen
  unsigned char *vaddr = NULL;
 
  // declare a pointer to the offset of the VGA memory
  unsigned char *vga = (unsigned char *) MK_FP(0xA000, 0);
 
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//                                                                           //
//                                MAIN FUNCTION                              //
//                                                                           //
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
 
void main() {
 
  clrscr();
  cout
    << "This program will demonstrate the power of virtual screens.\n"
    << "A block will firstly move across the screen, being drawn and\n"
    << "erased totally on the VGA. Then the same block will move\n"
    << "across, but will be drawn on the virtual screen and flipped\n"
    << "to the VGA screen without a retrace (see part 2). The the\n"
    << "block will go again, with flipping and a retrace.\n\n"
    << "I will then draw a pattern, flip it to VGA, draw another\n"
    << "pattern, flip it to VGA, and repeat that until a key is pressed.\n"
    << "This will demonstrate that even when I put down 10000 pixels,\n"
    << "then flip them to the VGA, it is still relatively fast.\n\n";
  cout << "Hit any key to continue ...";
  getch();
  SetMCGA();
  SetUpVirtual();
  Cls(0,vaddr);    // After you have got the memory for the virtual screen,
		   // it is usually filled with random garbage. It is always
		   // wise to clear the virtual screen directly afterwards
  BlockMove();
 
  do    PatternDraw();
  while (!kbhit());
  getch();         // getch() = clear keyboard buffer from kbhit()
 
  SetText();
  ShutDown();
  cout
    << "All done. This concludes the fourth sample program in the ASPHYXIA\n"
    << "Training series. You may reach DENTHOR under the name of GRANT\n"
    << "SMITH on the MailBox BBS, or leave a message to ASPHYXIA on the\n"
    << "ASPHYXIA BBS. Get the numbers from Roblist, or write to :\n"
    << "             Grant Smith\n"
    << "             P.O. Box 270\n"
    << "             Kloof\n"
    << "             3640\n"
    << "I hope to hear from you soon!\n\n";
  cout << "Hit any key to exit ...";
  getch();
 
}
 
 
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//                                                                         //
// SetMCGA() - This function gets you into 320x200x256 mode.               //
//                                                                         //
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
 
void SetMCGA() {
  _AX = 0x0013;
  geninterrupt (0x10);
}
 
 
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//                                                                         //
// SetText() - This function gets you into text mode.                      //
//                                                                         //
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
 
void SetText() {
  _AX = 0x0003;
  geninterrupt (0x10);
}
 
 
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//                                                                         //
// Cls() - This clears the screen to the specified color, on the VGA or on //
//         the Virtual screen.                                             //
//                                                                         //
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
 
void Cls(unsigned char Col, unsigned char *Where) {
  _fmemset(Where, Col, 64000);
}
 
 
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//                                                                         //
// WaitRetrace() - This waits until you are in a Verticle Retrace.         //
//                                                                         //
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
 
void WaitRetrace() {
 
  _DX = 0x03DA;
 
  l1: asm {
	in  al,dx;
	and al,0x08;
	jnz l1;
      }
 
  l2: asm {
	in  al,dx;
	and al,0x08;
	jz  l2;
      }
}
 
 
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//                                                                         //
// SetUpVirtual() - This sets up the memory needed for the virtual screen. //
//                                                                         //
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
 
void SetUpVirtual() {
 
  vaddr = (unsigned char *) calloc(64000,1);
  if (vaddr == NULL) {
    SetText();
    cout << "Not enough memory available, exiting program...";
    exit(1);
  }
}
 
 
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//                                                                         //
// ShutDown() - This frees the memory used by the virtual screen.          //
//                                                                         //
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
 
void ShutDown() {
  free(vaddr);
}
 
 
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//                                                                         //
// Putpixel() - This puts a pixel at X,Y using color Col, on VGA or the    //
//              Virtual Screen;                                            //
//                                                                         //
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
 
void Putpixel (int x, int y, unsigned char Col, unsigned char *Where) {
  memset(Where+(x+(y*320)),Col,1);
}
 
 
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//                                                                         //
// Flip() - This flips the virtual screen to the VGA screen.               //
//                                                                         //
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
 
void Flip() {
  _fmemcpy(vga,vaddr,64000);
}
 
 
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//                                                                         //
// BlockMove() - This tests various ways of moving a block around the      //
//               screen.                                                   //
//                                                                         //
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
 
void BlockMove() {
 
  int loop1, loop2, loop3;
 
  // This draws a block directly to the VGA with no flipping
  for (loop1=1; loop1<51; loop1++) {
    for (loop2=1; loop2<51; loop2++)
      for (loop3=1; loop3<51; loop3++)
	Putpixel (loop1+loop2,loop3,32, vga);
    Cls(0,vga);
  }
 
  // This draws a block to the virtual screen, then flips it to the VGA
  for (loop1=1; loop1<51; loop1++) {
    for (loop2=1; loop2<51; loop2++)
      for (loop3=1; loop3<51; loop3++)
	Putpixel (loop1+loop2,loop3,32, vaddr);
    Flip();
    Cls(0,vaddr);
  }
 
  // This draws to the virtual screen, waits for retrace, then flips to VGA
  for (loop1=1; loop1<51; loop1++) {
    for (loop2=1; loop2<51; loop2++)
      for (loop3=1; loop3<51; loop3++)
	Putpixel (loop1+loop2,loop3,32, vaddr);
    WaitRetrace();
    Flip();
    Cls(0,vaddr);
  }
 
}
 
 
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//                                                                         //
// PatternDraw() - This tests the speed of flipping by drawing two         //
//                 patterns and flipping them.                             //
//                                                                         //
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
 
void PatternDraw() {
 
  int loop1, loop2;
 
  // This draws pattern #1 to the virtual screen, then flips it to VGA
  for(loop1=1; loop1<101; loop1++)
    for(loop2=1; loop2<101; loop2++)
	Putpixel (loop1,loop2,loop1,vaddr);
  Flip();
 
  // This draws pattern #2 to the virtual screen, then flips it to VGA
  for(loop1=1; loop1<101; loop1++)
    for(loop2=1; loop2<101; loop2++)
	Putpixel (loop1,loop2,loop2,vaddr);
  Flip();
 
}

back2root/archives/denthor/part-04.txt · Dernière modification: 2021/09/04 22:44 de frater